N’Djamena Climate & Monthly Temperature Overview – Chad

Dry Season (November – April)

During the dry season, N’Djamena experiences scorching temperatures and minimal precipitation. The average temperature hovers around 35°C (95°F), with little variation between day and night. The humidity levels drop significantly, creating a dry and dusty atmosphere. Rainfall is scarce, with an average of only 10 millimeters falling throughout the entire season.

Wet Season (May – October)

The wet season brings a noticeable change in N’Djamena’s climate. Temperatures remain high, but the humidity rises considerably. Thunderstorms and heavy rainfall are common, particularly during the peak months of July and August. The average rainfall during the wet season totals around 300 millimeters. However, the showers often come in short, intense bursts, causing flash flooding and creating muddy conditions.

Average Temperature in N’Djamena, Chad

N’Djamena, the capital and largest city of Chad, experiences a tropical savanna climate with distinct wet and dry seasons. The average annual temperature in N’Djamena is around 30°C (86°F), with little variation throughout the year. However, there are noticeable differences in temperature between the wet and dry seasons.

During the wet season, which typically lasts from May to October, temperatures are slightly lower, averaging around 29°C (84°F). This season is characterized by high humidity and frequent rainfall, which can lead to sultry and uncomfortable conditions. In contrast, the dry season, which runs from November to April, features higher temperatures, averaging around 32°C (90°F). This period is typically characterized by clear skies and very little precipitation, leading to dry and dusty conditions.

Cloud Patterns in N’Djamena

N’Djamena, the capital of Chad, experiences various cloud formations throughout the year due to its tropical climate. During the rainy season (June-October), cumulonimbus clouds are prevalent, bringing heavy rainfall and occasional thunderstorms. These towering clouds are characterized by their anvil-shaped tops and are often associated with convective activity. Cumulus clouds, with their fluffy, cotton-like appearance, are also common during this period and can indicate fair weather or light precipitation.

Seasonal Variations in Cloud Cover

N’Djamena exhibits marked seasonal variations in cloud cover. During the dry season (November-May), the sky is typically clear with minimal cloud cover. High-level clouds, such as cirrus and cirrocumulus, are often present, indicating stable atmospheric conditions. However, as the rainy season approaches, cloudiness increases, with the frequency of cumulonimbus and cumulus clouds rising. This shift in cloud cover is closely tied to the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), a band of low pressure that brings moisture and precipitation to the region during the summer months.

Annual Precipitation Patterns

N’Djamena experiences a tropical wet and dry climate, characterized by distinct wet and dry seasons. The wet season typically extends from May to October, with heavy rainfall concentrated during the months of July and August. During this period, the city receives the majority of its annual precipitation, with average monthly rainfall exceeding 200 millimeters. In contrast, the dry season extends from November to April and is marked by minimal rainfall.

Spatial and Temporal Variability

Precipitation in N’Djamena exhibits considerable spatial and temporal variability. The city is located in the Sahelian zone, which is particularly vulnerable to climate change. Interannual variability in precipitation is influenced by both global and regional factors, including the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and West African Monsoon (WAM) dynamics. In recent decades, N’Djamena has experienced a decline in average annual precipitation and an increase in the frequency of extreme rainfall events, such as floods. These trends are likely linked to changes in atmospheric circulation patterns and land use practices, and they pose significant challenges for urban infrastructure and water management.

Climate and Rainfall Patterns

N’Djamena, the capital of Chad, experiences a tropical savanna climate with distinct wet and dry seasons. The wet season lasts from May to October, when rainfall is abundant and intense. During this period, thunderstorms are frequent, and the city receives most of its annual precipitation. The dry season, from November to April, is characterized by very little rainfall and hot, dry conditions.

Rainfall Variability and Trends

The average annual rainfall in N’Djamena is approximately 600 millimeters (24 inches). However, there is considerable variability from year to year. In some years, the city may receive as much as 800 millimeters (32 inches) of rainfall, while in other years, it may receive less than 400 millimeters (16 inches). Over the past few decades, there has been a general trend of increasing rainfall in N’Djamena. This trend is consistent with observed changes in rainfall patterns in other parts of the Sahel region.

Historical Occurrence

Snowfall in N’Djamena, Chad, is an extraordinarily rare phenomenon. The city, located in the heart of the sub-Saharan Sahel region, experiences a tropical climate characterized by high temperatures and low precipitation throughout the year. In the recorded history of the city, snowfall has only been documented on a handful of occasions.

The most recent snowfall event in N’Djamena occurred in December 2016. Light snow fell for several hours, causing widespread astonishment and delight among the city’s residents. Prior to that, snowfall was reported in 1968 and 1922. These exceptional events have been attributed to unusual weather patterns and cold fronts that temporarily brought sub-freezing temperatures to the region.

Impact on the City and its Inhabitants

The occurrence of snowfall in N’Djamena has a significant impact on the city and its inhabitants. While some marvel at the beauty of the snow-covered landscape, others face challenges due to the unusual weather conditions. The snowfall can disrupt transportation, as roads become slippery and unsafe for vehicles. Businesses may temporarily close or operate with reduced hours, affecting the local economy.

Residents of N’Djamena are not accustomed to the cold and wet weather associated with snowfall. The lack of adequate clothing and shelter can pose health risks, especially for the elderly and vulnerable populations. Additionally, the sudden change in temperature can lead to an increased incidence of respiratory and other health issues.


N’Djamena, the capital city of Chad, experiences a hot desert climate with extreme temperatures and limited rainfall. The average daily temperature in N’Djamena ranges from 25°C (77°F) to 40°C (104°F) throughout the year, with the hottest period occurring during the dry season from November to April. During the dry season, temperatures can soar above 45°C (113°F), while the nights remain relatively warm, averaging 25°C (77°F) or higher.

Monsoon Season

The rainy season in N’Djamena typically lasts from May to October, during which the city experiences heavy rainfall and thunderstorms. The average annual rainfall is approximately 600mm (24 inches). The onset of the monsoon season brings with it a welcome respite from the scorching heat of the dry season, as temperatures drop slightly and humidity increases. However, the rainy season can also lead to flooding and other weather-related challenges, such as mudslides and infrastructure damage.

Moon’s Visibility in N’Djamena

N’Djamena, the capital of Chad, experiences regular fluctuations in the visibility and appearance of the Moon due to its geographical location and celestial events. The Moon’s cycle follows a predictable pattern, with the full Moon marking its peak visibility. During this phase, the Moon appears as a complete disk, casting a bright glow in the night sky. However, the waning phase sees the Moon gradually diminishing in size, becoming a crescent and eventually invisible to the naked eye.

Phases and Moonrise/Moonset Times

The Moon’s phases in N’Djamena vary throughout the month. The new Moon marks the start of the cycle, when the Moon is not visible as it aligns with the Sun. As the Moon progresses through its phases, its visibility increases, reaching its peak during the full Moon. The exact times of moonrise and moonset also depend on the phase of the Moon and the time of year. During the summer months, the Moon rises later and sets earlier, while in winter, the opposite occurs.

Seasonal Humidity Variations

N’Djamena, the capital city of Chad, experiences significant seasonal variations in humidity. During the dry season, which typically lasts from November to April, humidity levels are generally low, ranging between 20% and 40%. The low humidity during this period is largely due to the influence of the harmattan, a dry and dusty wind that blows from the Sahara Desert.

During the rainy season, which typically occurs from May to October, humidity levels increase significantly. The influx of moisture from the Atlantic Ocean and the increased rainfall result in average humidity levels ranging from 60% to 80%. The high humidity during this period can be particularly uncomfortable, especially during the hot and humid months of July and August.

Health Impacts of Humidity

High humidity levels in N’Djamena can have several health implications. Increased humidity can lead to excessive sweating, making it difficult for the body to cool down effectively. This can result in heat exhaustion, heat cramps, and heat stroke. Prolonged exposure to high humidity can also worsen respiratory conditions such as asthma and allergies, as the moisture in the air can irritate the airways. Additionally, high humidity levels can create favorable conditions for the growth of mold and mildew, which can trigger allergic reactions and other health problems.

Wind Patterns

N’Djamena, the capital of Chad, experiences a distinct wind pattern characterized by two predominant wind regimes: the harmattan and the monsoon. The harmattan is a dry, dusty wind that originates from the Sahara Desert and blows from the northeast during the dry season from November to April. This wind carries fine sand particles and can reduce visibility, causing hazy and dusty conditions. In contrast, the monsoon is a moist, southerly wind that brings rainfall to N’Djamena during the rainy season from May to October. The monsoon winds transport moisture from the Gulf of Guinea and typically provide relief from the dry conditions of the harmattan.

Impacts of Wind

The prevailing winds in N’Djamena have a significant impact on the city’s environment and daily life. The harmattan wind causes poor air quality, which can lead to respiratory problems and allergic reactions. The dust carried by the wind can also damage buildings and infrastructure. Conversely, the monsoon winds bring much-needed rainfall that replenishes water resources and supports agricultural activities. However, heavy rainfall can also lead to flooding and displacement of populations. Moreover, the wind patterns influence local traditions and practices. For instance, the harmattan season is associated with the harvesting of certain crops and the preparation of delicacies related to this period. The wind regimes shape the cultural landscape of N’Djamena, influencing food, clothing, and festival celebrations.

Best Time to Visit for Optimal Weather

The optimal period to visit N’Djamena for favorable weather conditions is during the dry season, which spans from November to April. During this time, the skies are typically clear, with minimal rainfall and generally comfortable temperatures. The humidity levels are also lower, making it a pleasant time for outdoor activities and exploration.

Best Time to Visit for Cultural Events and Festivals

To immerse yourself in N’Djamena’s vibrant cultural scene, it is recommended to visit during specific times of the year. The month of March is marked by the annual Chad National Culture Festival, which showcases a diverse range of traditional dances, music performances, and cultural exhibitions. The festival offers a unique opportunity to experience the rich heritage and diversity of Chad.

Potential of Solar Energy in N’Djamena, Chad

N’Djamena, the capital of Chad, experiences abundant sunshine throughout the year. This makes solar energy a highly viable and sustainable energy source for the city. With an average of over 3,000 sunshine hours annually, N’Djamena has the potential to generate a significant amount of electricity using solar photovoltaic (PV) systems.

Challenges and Opportunities

There are several challenges that need to be overcome to fully harness the potential of solar energy in N’Djamena. These include the high initial investment costs of solar PV systems, the lack of technical expertise, and the intermittent nature of solar resources. However, these challenges are outweighed by the immense benefits of solar energy. Solar power can provide clean, affordable, and reliable electricity, reducing the city’s dependence on fossil fuels. Additionally, the development of solar energy in N’Djamena can create employment opportunities and stimulate economic growth.

Topography and Terrain

N’Djamena, the capital city of Chad, is situated in the southwestern region of the country, resting along the banks of the Chari River. The city’s topography is characterized by flat, arid plains that extend far beyond its urban boundaries. These plains are part of the broader Sahel region, a semi-arid zone that stretches across the African continent. The average elevation of N’Djamena is approximately 298 meters (978 feet) above sea level, with minimal elevation variations within the city. The terrain is predominantly sandy and dusty, contributing to the city’s dry and arid climate.

Chari River and Wetlands

A prominent feature of N’Djamena’s topography is the presence of the Chari River, which flows along the southern edge of the city. The river provides a vital source of water for the local population and supports a variety of aquatic ecosystems. The Chari River basin is home to numerous wetlands, including marshes, swamps, and floodplains, which are important habitats for wildlife and contribute to the city’s biodiversity. During the rainy season, the river can expand significantly, flooding adjacent areas and creating temporary wetlands that provide important breeding grounds for fish and other aquatic species. The Chari River and its associated wetlands play a crucial role in shaping the local ecology and supporting the livelihoods of many in the region.

N’Djamena International Airport (NDJ)

N’Djamena International Airport (IATA: NDJ, ICAO: FTTJ), also known as Hassan Djamous Airport, is the main international airport serving N’Djamena, the capital of Chad. It is located about 4 kilometers (2.5 mi) south of the city center. The airport has one runway, which is 3,350 meters (10,991 ft) long and 45 meters (148 ft) wide. N’Djamena International Airport is the hub for Tchadia Airlines, the national airline of Chad.

The airport has a single passenger terminal, which was built in 2011. The terminal has a capacity of 1.5 million passengers per year. The airport also has a cargo terminal, which was built in 2014. The cargo terminal has a capacity of 100,000 tons of cargo per year. N’Djamena International Airport is served by a number of airlines, including Air France, Ethiopian Airlines, Turkish Airlines, and EgyptAir. The airport is also a popular destination for charter flights.

History and Significance

N’Djamena, the capital and largest city of Chad, is a bustling metropolis with a rich history. Founded as Fort-Lamy in 1900 by the French, it played a strategic role in the conquest and colonization of Central Africa. After Chad gained independence in 1960, the city was renamed N’Djamena, meaning “place of rest” in the local Sara language. N’Djamena has been the political, administrative, and economic hub of Chad ever since.

Culture and Attractions

N’Djamena offers a blend of traditional and modern elements. The National Museum boasts a diverse collection of artifacts showcasing Chad’s cultural heritage. Visitors can explore the vibrant Grand Marché, where a wide array of goods are sold, from local crafts to imported items. The Grande Mosquée, with its imposing minaret, is a prominent landmark in the city. N’Djamena also has a lively nightlife, with numerous bars and restaurants offering live music and entertainment. In addition, the city is home to universities, research institutes, and international organizations, contributing to its intellectual and cultural vibrancy.