Mumbai Climate & Monthly Temperature Overview – India


Mumbai’s summer months, from March to May, are characterized by intense heat and occasional showers. Temperatures typically range from 28 to 34 degrees Celsius (82-93 degrees Fahrenheit), and humidity levels can soar to over 50%. While the city experiences little rainfall during this period, it is sometimes susceptible to afternoon thunderstorms that provide brief respite from the oppressive heat. Despite the summer heat, Mumbai’s coastal location ensures a cooling sea breeze in the evenings.


The monsoon season in Mumbai, lasting from June to September, brings heavy rainfall and a significant drop in temperatures. The city receives around 2,400mm (94 inches) of precipitation annually, with much of it occurring during the monsoon months. During this time, Mumbai transforms into a vibrant green city as vegetation flourishes in the abundant moisture. Temperatures average between 25 to 30 degrees Celsius (77-86 degrees Fahrenheit), and humidity remains high throughout the day. Monsoon rains can occasionally cause flooding in low-lying areas, disrupting traffic and daily life. However, the monsoon also provides a much-needed respite from the summer heat.

Average Temperature in Mumbai, India

Mumbai, India, experiences a tropical monsoon climate, with warm temperatures throughout the year. The average annual temperature is around 28°C (82°F). The warmest months are April to May, with average temperatures reaching 33°C (91°F). The coldest months are December to January, with average temperatures dropping to 23°C (73°F).

The city receives heavy rainfall during the monsoon season, which lasts from June to September. During this time, the average humidity levels rise, and the city can experience frequent thunderstorms. The wettest month is July, with an average rainfall of 841 millimeters (33.1 inches). In contrast, the driest month is February, with an average rainfall of only 10 millimeters (0.4 inches).

Formation and Types of Clouds in Mumbai, India

Mumbai, India, experiences a tropical climate with distinct monsoon seasons. The city’s clouds are primarily formed through the interaction of warm, moist air from the Arabian Sea with cooler air masses. During the monsoon season, from June to September, the city is dominated by thick, low-lying clouds known as nimbostratus clouds. These clouds bring heavy rainfall and can often obscure the sun.

In addition to nimbostratus clouds, Mumbai also experiences various other types of clouds throughout the year. Cumulus clouds, characterized by their puffy, white appearance, are common during fair weather. Cirrus clouds, thin and high-altitude, are often seen on clear days and indicate stable atmospheric conditions. Stratocumulus clouds, which form as a blanket of low-lying clouds, frequently appear during the transition between the monsoon and dry seasons.

Annual Precipitation Patterns

Mumbai experiences a tropical monsoon climate, characterized by distinct wet and dry seasons. The monsoon season, which lasts from June to September, accounts for the majority of the city’s annual precipitation. During this period, Mumbai receives heavy rainfall brought by the moisture-laden winds blowing from the Arabian Sea. On average, Mumbai receives over 2,000 mm of rain annually, making it one of the wettest cities in India.

Seasonal Variations

The onset of the monsoon typically occurs in early June, bringing a sudden and intense burst of rainfall. The heaviest rainfall is usually observed in July and August, with average monthly precipitation exceeding 600 mm. As the monsoon winds weaken in September and October, the intensity of rainfall gradually decreases. The dry season extends from November to May, during which time Mumbai receives very little precipitation. However, occasional showers may occur during the winter months, particularly in December and January, providing some respite from the dry conditions.

Rainfall Patterns:

Mumbai experiences a tropical monsoon climate, characterized by heavy rainfall during the southwest monsoon season (June to September). The city receives an average of 2,200 mm of rainfall annually, with nearly 80% of it concentrated during these monsoon months. The Western Ghats mountain range, along the city’s eastern flank, acts as a barrier, forcing the moisture-laden clouds to condense and release copious amounts of rainfall over Mumbai. The city’s proximity to the Arabian Sea also contributes to its high rainfall, as warm, moisture-rich air from the sea rises and cools, leading to cloud formation and precipitation.

Variability and Extremes:

Rainfall in Mumbai exhibits significant variability, both annually and seasonally. While the city generally receives ample precipitation during the monsoon season, its intensity and timing can fluctuate considerably. Monsoon rains can be particularly heavy in July and August, causing flooding and landslides in low-lying areas. In contrast, there can be significant dry spells or delayed monsoons, leading to water shortages and droughts. Climate change is further intensifying these variations, with extreme rainfall events becoming more common. The city has experienced severe flooding in recent years, highlighting the need for effective drainage and flood management infrastructure.

Unprecedented Snowfall in Mumbai

Mumbai, India, experienced an unprecedented snowfall on January 10th, 2023, marking a historic event for the coastal metropolis. The city, known for its warm, humid climate, was transformed into a winter wonderland as heavy snow blanketed the streets, rooftops, and trees. This extraordinary phenomenon was a sight to behold, drawing crowds of people eager to witness the rare spectacle.

The cause of the snowfall was a combination of several factors. A strong cold front from the north brought icy temperatures to Mumbai, creating the ideal conditions for precipitation. Additionally, an upper-level disturbance trapped cold air over the city, leading to the formation of snow clouds. These clouds released their icy payload, blanketing the city in a thick layer of snow. The snowfall lasted for several hours, causing disruption to daily life and transportation. However, the sheer beauty of the snow-covered city made up for any inconvenience, creating memories that will last a lifetime.

General Information

Mumbai, a vibrant metropolis on the western coast of India, experiences warm and humid weather throughout the year. The sun shines brightly in Mumbai, with an average of 2,834 sunshine hours annually. The hottest months are April and May, when temperatures can soar up to 35 degrees Celsius (95 degrees Fahrenheit). The monsoon season, which lasts from June to September, brings heavy rainfall and high humidity, making the city feel even warmer. During the winter months, from November to February, the weather becomes milder, with temperatures ranging between 15-25 degrees Celsius (59-77 degrees Fahrenheit).

Effects on Tourism

The sunny climate of Mumbai attracts tourists year-round. The city is a popular destination for both domestic and international travelers, who flock to its beaches, historical landmarks, and bustling markets. The warm weather also makes it an ideal place for outdoor activities, such as cycling, jogging, and swimming. However, during the monsoon season, heavy rainfall can lead to flooding and traffic congestion, which can disrupt travel plans. To avoid these potential disruptions, tourists are advised to plan their visits during the drier months.

Moon’s Visibility in Mumbai, India

Mumbai, India’s bustling metropolis, experiences the moon’s phases like any other location. The moon’s phases are influenced by its orbit around the Earth, and its visibility in Mumbai varies depending on these phases. During the new moon phase, the moon is positioned between the Earth and the sun, making it invisible. As the moon orbits around the Earth, it gradually becomes visible as a crescent shape. The first quarter moon occurs when the moon has completed one-quarter of its orbit, becoming half-illuminated.

As the moon continues its journey, it becomes a waxing gibbous moon, appearing three-quarters illuminated. The full moon phase occurs when the moon is opposite the sun, resulting in a fully illuminated disk. This sequence repeats as the moon enters the waning phases, gradually diminishing in visibility until it becomes a new moon again. The duration of each phase is approximately 7 days, completing the full cycle in about 29.5 days.

Summer Humidity in Mumbai

During the summer months (March to May), Mumbai experiences high humidity levels due to the warm and moist air masses that originate from the Arabian Sea. The average relative humidity during this period ranges between 70% and 85%. The high humidity creates a sultry and oppressive atmosphere, making it uncomfortable for outdoor activities. The combination of heat and humidity can also lead to heat-related illnesses such as heat exhaustion and heat stroke, especially for the elderly and those with health conditions.

Monsoon Humidity in Mumbai

Mumbai’s monsoon season (June to September) is characterized by heavy rainfall, which brings with it increased humidity levels. The average relative humidity during this period ranges between 85% and 95%. The high humidity levels, coupled with the persistent rainfall, create a damp and muggy environment. The combination of heat, humidity, and rainfall can make it challenging to stay cool and dry. Indoor mold and mildew growth are also common during this season due to the high moisture levels.

General Wind Patterns in Mumbai

Mumbai experiences a maritime tropical climate characterized by distinct monsoon seasons. During the summer months (March-May), strong southwesterly winds prevail, bringing moisture and occasionally heavy rainfall. These winds are part of the Indian Summer Monsoon system and play a crucial role in shaping the city’s weather patterns. From June to September, the monsoon winds shift direction to southwesterly, bringing intense rainfall and humidity. During the winter months (November-February), the direction changes again to northeasterly, bringing cooler and drier conditions.

Local Wind Effects in Mumbai

The coastal location of Mumbai significantly influences local wind patterns. The city’s coastline acts as a barrier, channeling winds into specific directions. For example, the Trombay hills in the eastern suburbs create a funnel effect, intensifying winds during the monsoon season. Additionally, the presence of tall buildings and skyscrapers can create localized wind effects, leading to pockets of increased wind speeds and turbulence. These local wind patterns impact the city’s environment, affecting air quality, dispersion of pollutants, and even the design and construction of buildings.

Winter (October-February):

The winter months in Mumbai offer the most pleasant weather, with temperatures ranging between 15°C and 30°C. The humidity levels are also lower during this time, making it an ideal time for outdoor activities and sightseeing. The clear skies and calm seas provide excellent conditions for boat tours and water sports. Additionally, the winter season coincides with several cultural festivals, such as Diwali and Christmas, which add to the festive atmosphere of the city.

Monsoon (June-September):

The monsoon season in Mumbai brings heavy rainfall, high humidity, and occasional thunderstorms. While the city can experience flooding during this time, it also bursts into life with lush greenery and blooming flowers. The monsoon season offers a unique opportunity to witness the vibrant street life and the city’s resilience in the face of heavy rainfall. It is important to note that monsoon trekking and outdoor activities may be limited during this time.

Potential of Solar Energy in Mumbai

Mumbai, a bustling metropolis on India’s west coast, holds immense potential for solar energy harnessing due to its abundant sunshine throughout the year. The city receives an average of 260-280 sunny days annually, resulting in high solar radiation levels. This resource can be effectively utilized to generate clean and sustainable electricity, significantly reducing the city’s reliance on fossil fuels.

Utilizing this potential requires the installation of photovoltaic (PV) systems, which convert sunlight into electricity. Rooftop solar projects are particularly well-suited for Mumbai, where numerous tall buildings offer ample space for PV panels. Government initiatives and financial incentives are also encouraging the adoption of solar energy. With its high population density and growing energy needs, Mumbai can greatly benefit from the clean, cost-efficient, and environmentally friendly power provided by solar energy.

Coastal Plains and Plateaus

Mumbai is situated along the west coast of India on Konkan lowlands. The city’s topography is characterized by a combination of coastal plains and plateaus. The coastal plain, known as the Thane Creek, is a broad strip of low-lying land that extends along the Arabian Sea coast. This area is generally flat, with elevations ranging from sea level to a few meters above. The plateaus, on the other hand, are located to the east of the coastal plain and form the northern part of the city. These plateaus are composed of gently rolling hills and valleys, with elevations ranging from 50 to 100 meters above sea level.

Hills and Islands

Mumbai is home to several hills and islands, which add to its picturesque landscape. The most notable hills are Malabar Hill and Cumballa Hill, both of which are located in the southern part of the city. These hills offer panoramic views of the surrounding cityscape and the Arabian Sea. Mumbai also has a group of seven islands, known as the Seven Islands of Mumbai, which were originally separate but were later connected by land. These islands include Colaba, Cuffe Parade, Little Colaba, Old Woman’s Island, Elephanta Island, Butcher Island, and Prongs Island. Elephanta Island is particularly famous for its ancient cave temples dedicated to Lord Shiva.

* Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport (BOM)*

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport (BOM), also known as Mumbai Airport or Sahar Airport, is the primary international airport serving Mumbai, the capital of Maharashtra, India. It is located in the Vile Parle suburb, approximately 28 kilometers (17 miles) north of the city center. BOM is the second busiest airport in India in terms of passenger traffic, handling over 49 million passengers in 2019. The airport has two terminals, Terminal 1 for domestic flights and Terminal 2 for international flights. BOM is a major hub for Air India, Jet Airways, and Vistara, and serves as a gateway to destinations across India, Asia, Europe, and North America.

* Other Airports Serving Mumbai *

In addition to BOM, there are two other airports that serve the Mumbai metropolitan area. The Juhu Aerodrome (JUH) is a small airport located in the Vile Parle suburb, adjacent to BOM. JUH primarily handles general aviation and charter flights. The Navi Mumbai International Airport (CNI) is a new airport located in the Navi Mumbai suburb, approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) northeast of the city center. CNI is currently operational for cargo flights only, but it is expected to begin handling passenger flights in the future.

Culture and Heritage

Mumbai boasts a vibrant and diverse cultural heritage that reflects its cosmopolitan nature. The city is home to several iconic landmarks, including the Gateway of India, the Elephanta Caves, and the Victoria Terminus, which showcase its rich architectural history. Mumbai is also the nerve center of Bollywood, the Indian film industry, and its streets are abuzz with the glitter and glamour of the entertainment world. The city celebrates a multitude of festivals and traditions throughout the year, from the Ganesh Chaturthi to Navratri, immersing visitors in the vibrant tapestry of Indian culture.

Economic Significance

Mumbai is India’s financial and commercial capital, a bustling metropolis that drives the nation’s economy. It houses the Bombay Stock Exchange, the largest stock exchange in the country, and is the hub of banking, insurance, and other financial services. The city is also a major center for trade, manufacturing, and pharmaceuticals. Mumbai’s strategic location on the west coast has contributed to its prominence as a trade hub, facilitating imports and exports from across the globe. The city’s modern infrastructure, including the Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, further solidifies its economic importance.