Juba Climate & Monthly Temperature Overview – South Sudan


Juba experiences a tropical wet and dry climate, characterized by two distinct seasons: a dry season and a rainy season. The dry season runs from November to April, with average temperatures ranging from 25°C to 35°C (77°F to 95°F). The hottest months are March and April, when temperatures can reach up to 40°C (104°F). The rainy season lasts from May to October, with heavy rainfall and high humidity. Temperatures during the rainy season average between 20°C and 30°C (68°F to 86°F), with occasional thunderstorms.


Juba receives an average of 1,000 mm (39.4 in) of rainfall per year, most of which falls during the rainy season. The heaviest rainfall occurs in July and August, when the city receives over 200 mm (7.9 in) of rain per month. During the dry season, rainfall is scarce, with only occasional showers.

Average Temperature in Juba, South Sudan ##

Juba, the capital and largest city of South Sudan, experiences a tropical climate with distinct wet and dry seasons. The average temperature in Juba varies throughout the year, influenced by the interplay of factors such as latitude, altitude, and proximity to water bodies.

During the wet season, which typically lasts from April to October, average temperatures range between 25°C (77°F) and 30°C (86°F). This period is characterized by heavy rainfall, high humidity, and occasional thunderstorms. The wet season brings relief from the scorching heat of the dry season, but can also lead to flooding and infrastructure damage.

In contrast, the dry season, which runs from November to March, is marked by significantly lower average temperatures, dropping to around 20°C (68°F) at night. However, daytime temperatures can still reach up to 35°C (95°F), especially during the hottest months of December and January. The dry season is generally characterized by clear skies, low humidity, and minimal rainfall. The lack of precipitation can lead to drought conditions and water scarcity in some areas.

Cloud Cover

Juba, the capital of South Sudan, experiences varying cloud cover throughout the year. During the dry season, which lasts from December to March, skies are typically clear with minimal cloud cover. However, as the wet season approaches, cloud cover gradually increases. From April to November, clouds cover a significant portion of the sky, with frequent rainfall and thunderstorms. Cloud cover reaches its peak during the months of July and August, when Juba receives the heaviest rainfall.

Cloud Types

The types of clouds observed in Juba vary depending on the season and weather conditions. During the dry season, cirrus clouds are commonly seen, appearing as thin, wispy streaks in the sky. As the wet season progresses, cumulus clouds become more prevalent, forming large, puffy clusters that can indicate impending rainfall. Cumulonimbus clouds, associated with thunderstorms and heavy precipitation, are also common during the wet season. Additionally, Juba may experience fog during early mornings or late evenings, especially during the cooler months of the year.

Distribution of Precipitation

Juba, the capital of South Sudan, experiences a tropical climate with distinct wet and dry seasons. The wet season runs from March/April to October, while the dry season covers the remaining months. The majority of the city’s annual precipitation falls during the wet season, with the peak being in July and August. During these months, heavy rainfall is frequent, leading to flash flooding in some areas. The dry season is characterized by generally dry conditions, with minimal to no rainfall.

Seasonal Variability

The amount of precipitation in Juba varies significantly throughout the year. The wet season typically brings high rainfall, with monthly averages exceeding 150 millimeters (6 inches). August is the wettest month on average, receiving over 250 millimeters (10 inches) of rainfall. In contrast, the dry season is much drier, with monthly precipitation typically below 50 millimeters (2 inches). January and February are the driest months, with average rainfall of less than 10 millimeters (0.4 inches). The seasonal variability in precipitation is strongly influenced by the movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), which brings heavy rainfall when it passes over the region.

Rainfall Patterns

Juba, South Sudan, experiences a distinct wet and dry season pattern. The wet season typically runs from April to October, with peak rainfall occurring in July and August. During this period, the city receives a significant amount of precipitation, typically exceeding 500 millimeters per month. The dry season, which spans from November to March, is characterized by minimal rainfall, with monthly totals often dropping below 50 millimeters.

Annual Rainfall Variability

The annual rainfall in Juba exhibits considerable variability, with inter-annual fluctuations due to factors such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycles. During El Niño events, rainfall tends to be below average in Juba, resulting in drier conditions and potential drought-like situations. Conversely, La Niña events often bring enhanced rainfall, leading to increased flooding risks. Additionally, rainfall distribution within the wet season is not uniform, with occasional dry spells and periods of intense downpours.

Snowfall in Juba, South Sudan

Snowfall in Juba, South Sudan, is an extremely rare phenomenon. The city is located near the equator and has a tropical climate, with average temperatures ranging from 25 to 35 degrees Celsius (77 to 95 degrees Fahrenheit) year-round. The lack of snowfall is due to the city’s proximity to the equator, which means that the sun is nearly overhead for most of the year. This results in high levels of solar radiation and warm temperatures.

Despite the rarity of snowfall in Juba, there have been a few instances where it has occurred. In 1994, a light dusting of snow fell on the city, causing widespread amazement and excitement among the population. The last recorded snowfall in Juba was in 2012, when a small amount of snow fell on the outskirts of the city. These isolated incidents of snowfall are likely due to unusual weather patterns that bring cold air from higher latitudes to the city.

Average Sunshine Hours in Juba

Juba, the capital and largest city of South Sudan, experiences a tropical savanna climate with distinct wet and dry seasons. The average sunshine hours in Juba vary significantly throughout the year. During the dry season, which typically lasts from December to March, the city enjoys an abundance of sunshine, with an average of 10-11 hours of direct sunlight per day. However, during the wet season, which runs from April to November, cloud cover and rainfall reduce the average sunshine hours to around 5-6 hours per day.

Annual Sunshine Variation

The annual variation in sunshine hours in Juba is quite pronounced. The city experiences its peak sunshine during the dry season, with December and January being the sunniest months. During this time, the days are long and clear, with extended periods of sunshine. In contrast, the wet season brings a significant drop in sunshine hours, with July and August being the cloudiest months. The reduction in sunshine during the wet season is primarily due to the increased frequency and intensity of rainfall, which can often block out the sun for extended periods.

Moon’s Appearance and Influence

In Juba, South Sudan, the moon’s appearance varies throughout the month. During the new moon, it is completely invisible in the night sky. As the moon waxes, it gradually becomes more visible, reaching its fullest form during the full moon phase. The full moon casts a bright glow over the city, illuminating the streets and houses. The moon’s movement through its phases has been observed by the people of Juba for centuries and has played a significant role in their culture and traditions.

Cultural and Traditional Importance

The moon holds special significance in Juba’s cultural and traditional practices. Many communities observe the moon’s cycles to determine agricultural seasons, religious festivals, and social events. For instance, the start of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan is determined by the sighting of the new moon. Additionally, certain lunar phases are associated with specific cultural practices, such as hunting, fishing, and storytelling. The moon’s cyclical nature serves as a reminder of time’s passage and the interconnectedness between the natural world and human endeavors in Juba.

Humidity Levels

Juba, South Sudan experiences tropical wet and dry climate with distinct wet and dry seasons. The humidity levels in the city vary significantly depending on the time of the year. During the wet season, which typically occurs from April to October, the humidity levels are high, averaging around 75-85%. This high humidity can make it feel uncomfortable and muggy, especially during the hottest part of the day.

In the dry season, which lasts from November to March, the humidity levels decrease significantly. The average humidity during this period is around 40-60%, making the weather more pleasant and less oppressive. However, even during the dry season, occasional rainfall can lead to short-term increases in humidity.

Seasonal Variations in Wind Patterns

Juba, the capital city of South Sudan, experiences distinct seasonal variations in wind patterns. During the dry season, which stretches from November to April, prevailing winds blow from the north and northeast, bringing warm and dry conditions. These winds are relatively strong and can occasionally reach speeds of up to 30 kilometers per hour (19 miles per hour). In contrast, during the rainy season, which spans from May to October, the winds shift to a more southerly direction, originating from the Congo Basin. These southwesterly winds carry moisture and precipitation, resulting in increased rainfall over the city and its surroundings.

Speed and Gusts

The average wind speed in Juba is moderate, typically ranging between 10 and 15 kilometers per hour (6 to 9 miles per hour) throughout the year. However, during both seasons, occasional gusts can occur, especially during the transitional periods between the dry and rainy seasons. These gusts can reach speeds of over 40 kilometers per hour (25 miles per hour), and while they are usually short-lived, they can still cause discomfort or pose a hazard for outdoor activities. It is noteworthy that during the dry season, the strong and persistent northwesterly winds can kick up dust and sand, occasionally leading to poor visibility and respiratory discomfort.

Dry Season (November to March)

The dry season, spanning from November to March, offers the most favorable conditions for visiting Juba. During this period, rainfall is minimal, and the weather is generally warm and sunny with average temperatures ranging between 77°F and 86°F (25°C and 30°C). The lack of rain creates an ideal environment for outdoor activities, sightseeing, and wildlife viewing. However, it’s crucial to note that temperatures can occasionally soar to uncomfortable levels, especially during the peak months of December and January.

Wet Season (April to October)

From April to October, Juba experiences its wet season, characterized by frequent and heavy rainfall. While the rain provides much-needed moisture for the vegetation, it can significantly impact travel plans and outdoor activities. Flooding is common during this season, making it challenging to navigate certain roads and areas. Additionally, the high humidity levels can make the weather feel oppressive and uncomfortable. However, the wet season offers lush greenery and opportunities to witness the power and beauty of nature.

Potential of Solar Energy in Juba

Juba, the capital city of South Sudan, enjoys abundant sunshine year-round. This makes it an ideal location for the development of solar energy projects. The city has a daily average of 6-7 hours of peak sunlight, with solar radiation levels ranging between 5 and 6 kWh/m2/day. The city’s growing population and increasing demand for electricity further enhance the potential for solar energy.

Ongoing Projects and Initiatives

Several solar energy projects are currently underway or planned in Juba. In 2018, the government of South Sudan launched a 1-megawatt solar power plant, which is expected to provide electricity to approximately 2,500 households. Additionally, the World Bank is supporting a $40 million solar photovoltaic project that will install 10 megawatts of solar capacity and provide electricity to over 10,000 households. These projects aim to increase the city’s reliance on renewable energy, reduce its dependence on fossil fuels, and contribute to its overall sustainable development.

Terrain and Elevation

Juba is situated on a relatively flat terrain, with a gentle slope towards the White Nile River. The city’s elevation ranges from approximately 450 meters (1,475 feet) above sea level at the riverbank to around 500 meters (1,640 feet) in the western outskirts. The absence of significant hills or mountains within the city’s immediate vicinity contributes to its overall low-lying topography.


The White Nile River, which flows through Juba, plays a crucial role in shaping the city’s hydrography. The river forms the eastern boundary of Juba and provides a vital source of water for the city’s population. In addition to the White Nile, several tributaries and smaller streams flow through Juba, creating a network of waterways that contribute to the city’s drainage system. These waterways, however, can also pose challenges during heavy rainfall, leading to occasional flooding in certain areas of Juba.

Juba International Airport

Juba International Airport (IATA: JUB, ICAO: HJJJ) is the primary airport serving the city of Juba, South Sudan. Located approximately 5 kilometers (3.1 mi) west of the city center, it is the main gateway for international and domestic air travel in the country. The airport has a single, 3,300-meter (10,800 ft) runway and can accommodate wide-body aircraft such as the Boeing 747 and Airbus A380. Juba International Airport has undergone significant expansion and modernization in recent years, with a new passenger terminal, control tower, and cargo facilities constructed to meet the growing demand for air travel in South Sudan.

Other Nearby Airports

In addition to Juba International Airport, there are a few other smaller airports located in the vicinity of Juba. These include:

  • Nimule Airport (NIM): Located approximately 80 kilometers (50 mi) south of Juba, near the border with Uganda. It is primarily used for domestic flights within South Sudan.
  • Tambura Airport (TBU): Located approximately 150 kilometers (93 mi) west of Juba. It is also used for domestic flights within South Sudan.
  • Yei Airport (YEI): Located approximately 100 kilometers (62 mi) southwest of Juba. It is primarily used for domestic flights within South Sudan.

These smaller airports typically handle smaller aircraft and have limited scheduled services. They are mainly used for charter flights, humanitarian missions, and other specialized operations.

Juba: The Capital City of South Sudan

Juba is the capital and largest city of South Sudan. It is located on the White Nile River in Central Equatoria state. Juba has a population of over 500,000 people and is the political, economic, and cultural center of South Sudan. The city has a long and complex history, having been ruled by various empires and colonial powers over the centuries. After South Sudan gained independence in 2011, Juba became the capital of the newly formed nation.

Attractions and Culture

Juba is a vibrant and cosmopolitan city with a rich cultural heritage. The city is home to many museums, monuments, and historical sites. The Juba National Museum is a must-see for visitors, as it houses a collection of artifacts that tell the story of South Sudan’s history. The John Garang Mausoleum is another popular attraction, as it is the burial site of the late president of South Sudan. Juba is also known for its vibrant nightlife and music scene. The city has many bars, clubs, and restaurants that offer a variety of entertainment options for visitors.