Jayapura Climate & Monthly Temperature Overview – Indonesia

Temperature and Precipitation

Jayapura enjoys a tropical rainforest climate with consistent temperatures throughout the year. The average temperature ranges from a minimum of 24°C (75°F) in July and August to a maximum of 31°C (88°F) in February and March. Rainfall is abundant, with an average annual precipitation of over 3,000 mm (120 in). The wet season typically runs from October to April, peaking in December and January when heavy downpours are common. The dry season occurs from May to September, but still experiences occasional rainfall.

Humidity and Sunshine

Jayapura has high humidity levels year-round, averaging around 80%. The humidity can make temperatures feel warmer than they actually are, especially during the rainy season. Despite the abundant rainfall, Jayapura also receives plenty of sunshine. The city averages over 2,000 hours of sunshine per year, making it one of the sunniest cities in Indonesia. The rainy season often brings brief but intense showers, followed by periods of bright sunshine. However, prolonged periods of overcast skies can occur during the wet season, especially in December and January.

Monthly Average Temperatures

Jayapura, situated on the northern coast of Papua, Indonesia, experiences a tropical climate with consistent temperatures throughout the year. The average monthly temperature ranges between 26.3°C (79.3°F) in December to 28.7°C (83.6°F) in April, with little variation between day and night temperatures. The warmest months are April and May, while the coolest months are December and January.

Yearly Average Temperature

The yearly average temperature in Jayapura is 27.6°C (81.6°F). This constant temperature makes it a pleasant place to live and visit all year round. The humidity levels are also relatively high, ranging between 75% and 85%, which can make the air feel muggy at times. However, the sea breeze from the Pacific Ocean often provides a cooling effect. The absence of extreme temperature fluctuations allows for comfortable living conditions without the need for air conditioning or heating.

Cloud Types and Distribution

Jayapura, Indonesia experiences a wide range of cloud formations due to its tropical climate and proximity to the ocean. The predominant cloud types include cirrus, cumulus, and stratocumulus clouds. Cirrus clouds are thin, wispy clouds composed of ice crystals and are often seen at high altitudes. Cumulus clouds are puffy and white, with flat bases and rounded tops. They are typically associated with fair weather and can grow vertically into towering cumulonimbus clouds, which can bring thunderstorms. Stratocumulus clouds are low-level clouds that appear as a layer of gray or white, often with a wavy or cellular pattern.

Cloud Patterns and Seasonal Variations

The distribution and patterns of clouds in Jayapura vary throughout the year. During the wet season (November to April), cloud cover is generally more extensive, with frequent showers and thunderstorms. The presence of the convergence zone, where trade winds from different hemispheres meet, contributes to the development of convective clouds, resulting in higher precipitation during this period. In contrast, the dry season (May to October) is characterized by less cloud cover and more stable atmospheric conditions. The monsoon winds bring drier air from the Australian continent, leading to a decrease in cloud formation and precipitation.

Precipitation Patterns

Jayapura, Indonesia, experiences a tropical rainforest climate, characterized by high humidity and abundant rainfall throughout the year. The city’s precipitation patterns are influenced by the monsoon seasons, which are caused by the movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). During the northwest monsoon from October to April, Jayapura receives less rainfall than during the southeast monsoon from May to September. The wettest months are generally November and December, when the ITCZ is positioned over or near the city. Conversely, the driest months are typically August and September, when the ITCZ is far from Jayapura.

Annual Precipitation

The average annual precipitation in Jayapura is approximately 2,800 millimeters (110 inches). However, the amount of rainfall can vary significantly from year to year, influenced by factors such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. During El Niño years, rainfall tends to decrease slightly, while during La Niña years, rainfall tends to increase. Despite these variations, Jayapura typically receives between 2,500 and 3,000 millimeters of rainfall annually. The heavy rainfall contributes to the lush vegetation and vibrant ecosystems found in and around the city.

Seasonal Distribution of Rainfall

Jayapura, the capital of Papua Province, Indonesia, experiences a tropical monsoon climate with distinct wet and dry seasons. The wet season extends from October to April, during which the city receives ample rainfall. This period is influenced by the Northwest Monsoon, which brings moisture-laden winds from the ocean. The wet season is characterized by consistent and heavy showers, resulting in high precipitation levels. Conversely, the dry season spans from May to September and is dominated by the Southeast Monsoon. During this time, rainfall is significantly reduced as the winds shift direction and carry drier air. The dry season is generally less humid and experiences sporadic showers.

Annual Precipitation and Variability

Jayapura receives an average annual precipitation of approximately 2,500 millimeters (mm). However, there is considerable variation in precipitation levels from year to year. The wettest year on record, 2021, saw an exceptional 3,200 mm of rainfall. In contrast, the driest year, 2015, received only 1,800 mm of rainfall. This variability is primarily attributed to the influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycles. During El Niño years, rainfall tends to be lower than average, while during La Niña years, precipitation is generally higher. The city’s topography also plays a role in rainfall distribution, with higher elevations receiving more rainfall than lower-lying areas.

Unique Occurrence: Snowfall in Tropical Indonesia

Snowfall is an uncommon phenomenon in the tropical region of Indonesia, particularly in low-lying areas like the city of Jayapura. However, on December 20, 2018, an extraordinary event occurred as snow blanketed parts of the city. This marked the first time snowfall had been recorded in Jayapura’s history, making it an unforgettable spectacle for its residents. The snow fell in the highlands surrounding the city, with some areas experiencing snow depths of up to 5 centimeters. The event was attributed to a combination of cold air from the Antarctic, high humidity, and strong winds.

Significance and Impact

The snowfall in Jayapura was not just a meteorological anomaly but also a captivating sight for the local community. Many flocked to the snow-covered areas to enjoy the rare occurrence and capture memorable photographs. Some used the snow to build snowmen, while others simply marveled at the beauty of the winter wonderland that had descended upon their tropical city. The snowfall had a significant impact on the daily lives of Jayapura’s inhabitants. Roads and schools were closed due to the slippery conditions, and power outages were reported as electrical lines were weighed down by snow accumulation. Despite the inconvenience, the snowfall was generally welcomed with joy and wonder by the community. It served as a reminder of the beauty and diversity of nature, even in regions where snow is typically not expected.

Sunrise and Sunset Times:

The sun rises in Jayapura, Indonesia, on average between 5:30 and 6:00 AM local time throughout the year. Sunset occurs between 5:30 and 6:00 PM, with minimal variation due to the city’s proximity to the equator. The sunrise and sunset times remain relatively consistent due to the lack of significant seasonal changes in Jayapura’s tropical climate.

Sunlight Duration:

Jayapura experiences an average of 12 hours of sunlight per day. This duration varies slightly throughout the year, with the longest days occurring during the summer months of December and January, when the sun shines for approximately 12 hours and 15 minutes. The shortest days occur during the winter months of June and July, when the sunlight duration is around 11 hours and 45 minutes. Despite the slight variations, Jayapura enjoys ample sunlight throughout the year, making it an ideal destination for outdoor activities and sunbathing.

Moonrise and Moonset Times

The moon’s position in the sky varies throughout the night, and its rise and set times change accordingly. In Jayapura, the moon’s average rise and set times can be found using online resources or astronomical almanacs. The moonrise time is the moment when the upper limb of the moon first appears above the eastern horizon, while the moonset time is when the lower limb of the moon touches the western horizon. These times vary depending on the date and time of year.

Moon Phases

The moon’s appearance changes over the course of a month, as it orbits the Earth. These changes are known as moon phases, and they range from new moon, when the moon is not visible from Earth, to full moon, when the entire face of the moon is illuminated. The moon’s phase for a given date and location can be determined using moon phase calculators or astronomical resources. In Jayapura, the moon’s phases are similar to those observed in other parts of the world, although the exact timing may vary slightly due to the city’s specific latitude and longitude.

Humidity Overview

Jayapura, the capital of Papua province in Indonesia, experiences tropical rainforest climate characterized by consistently warm temperatures and high humidity throughout the year. Humidity levels typically range between 70% and 90% with little seasonal variation. The city’s proximity to the equator and the surrounding lush vegetation contribute to its humid climate. The high humidity can make the air feel muggy and uncomfortable, especially during the warmest months.

Seasonal Variations

Humidity levels in Jayapura show slight variations between the wet and dry seasons. During the wet season, which runs from October to April, humidity is generally higher due to increased rainfall and cloud cover. The air is more saturated, resulting in higher humidity levels that can sometimes reach as high as 100%. In the dry season, from May to September, humidity levels may drop slightly to around 65% to 75%. However, even during the dry season, humidity remains relatively high, creating a humid and often oppressive atmosphere.

General Wind Patterns

Jayapura, situated on the north coast of Papua, experiences a tropical monsoon climate characterized by two distinct wind seasons. During the northwest monsoon season, from October to April, strong northerly and northwesterly winds prevail. These winds bring abundant rainfall to the region, resulting in a more humid and cloudy climate. Conversely, during the southeast monsoon season, from May to September, southeasterly and easterly winds dominate, bringing drier and less humid conditions.

Local Wind Phenomena

Apart from the seasonal wind patterns, Jayapura also experiences localized wind phenomena, particularly in the afternoons. The prevailing sea breeze during this time brings cooler and refreshing winds from the ocean, which helps alleviate the midday heat. Additionally, strong katabatic winds, known as haboobs, can occur during the dry season. These powerful downdrafts descend from the nearby Cyclops Mountains, bringing with them sudden gusts of up to 100 kilometers per hour. While they provide some relief from the heat, haboobs can also cause significant damage to infrastructure.

Dry Season (April-October)

The dry season in Jayapura provides an ideal time to explore the city and its surroundings. With minimal rainfall, the weather is generally pleasant and sunny, making it suitable for outdoor activities. During this period, the skies are often clear, offering stunning views of the towering mountains and pristine beaches that surround Jayapura. Water sports enthusiasts can take advantage of the calm seas and engage in snorkeling, diving, or fishing excursions. The dry season also coincides with the peak season for tourism, so visitors may expect higher prices for accommodation and services.

Wet Season (November-March)

The wet season in Jayapura brings heavy rainfall and occasional storms. While this can make outdoor activities more challenging, the city’s vibrant cultural scene offers alternative ways to enjoy the season. Visitors can immerse themselves in the local customs by attending traditional ceremonies, visiting museums, and sampling the delicious local cuisine. The wet season also offers a unique opportunity to witness the lush vegetation and waterfalls that come to life after the rains. Although transportation may be more limited during the wet season, many attractions remain accessible, allowing visitors to delve into the city’s rich history and cultural heritage.

Potential of Solar Energy in Jayapura

Jayapura, Indonesia, situated on the northern coast of New Guinea, boasts remarkable solar energy potential. The city experiences abundant sunshine throughout the year, with an average of seven to eight sunlight hours per day. This makes Jayapura an ideal location for harnessing solar energy as a sustainable and environmentally friendly source of electricity. The high solar insolation levels in the region offer significant opportunities for large-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) projects, which can provide clean and renewable electricity to meet the growing energy demands of the city.

Challenges and Opportunities

Despite the promising potential, Jayapura faces certain challenges in developing its solar energy industry. Limited grid infrastructure and underdeveloped transmission systems hinder the integration of large-scale solar PV projects into the existing power grid. Additionally, the high capital costs associated with solar PV installations can pose economic barriers to widespread adoption. However, these challenges also present opportunities for investment and technological innovation. By investing in grid infrastructure and exploring innovative financing mechanisms, Jayapura can unlock the full potential of solar energy. Moreover, ongoing advancements in solar PV technology are reducing costs and improving efficiency, making solar energy more accessible and cost-effective for businesses and households in Jayapura.

Mountain Ranges and Hills

Jayapura, Indonesia, is located on the northern coast of the island of New Guinea. It is surrounded by a mountainous landscape that includes several mountain ranges and hills. The most prominent mountain range in the area is the Cyclops Mountains, which run parallel to the coast. The Cyclops Mountains are home to the highest peak in Jayapura, Mount Cyclops, which stands at 1,936 meters (6,352 feet) above sea level. Other notable mountain ranges in the area include the Sentani Mountains and the Arfak Mountains.

Valleys and Rivers

The mountainous landscape of Jayapura has created a number of valleys and rivers. The most important river in the area is the Mamberamo River, which flows through the Mamberamo Valley. The Mamberamo River is one of the largest rivers in Indonesia and is an important source of hydroelectric power. Other notable rivers in the area include the Sentani River and the Tami River. The valleys in Jayapura are often used for agriculture, and they are home to a variety of crops, including rice, corn, and sweet potatoes.

Sentani Airport (DJJ)

Located approximately 20 kilometers from Jayapura city center, Sentani Airport (DJJ) is the primary gateway to Papua. It serves as a hub for domestic flights within Indonesia and provides connectivity to major cities like Jakarta, Surabaya, and Denpasar. With a single terminal and a capacity to handle up to 2 million passengers annually, DJJ offers a range of facilities, including duty-free shops, restaurants, and a business lounge. The airport is well-connected to the city center via taxis, buses, and car rental services.

Other Nearby Airports

In addition to Sentani Airport, Jayapura is served by several smaller airports located in surrounding areas. Oksibil Airport (OKS), approximately 260 kilometers west of Jayapura, provides flights to Wamena and Nabire. Wamena Airport (WMX), located in the central highlands of Papua, offers connections to Sentani and other regional destinations. To the east, Merauke Mopah Airport (MKQ) provides flights to Denpasar and Jakarta. These smaller airports cater to the specific needs of their respective regions and offer limited connectivity compared to Sentani Airport.


Jayapura is the capital city of Papua Province, Indonesia. Formerly known as Hollandia, it was established by the Dutch in 1910 and served as the administrative center of Netherlands New Guinea. During World War II, it was occupied by Japan and renamed Minami. After Indonesia gained independence in 1949, it was renamed Kota Baru (New City) and later Jayapura (City of Victory). Jayapura experienced rapid growth and development in the 1960s and 1970s due to the influx of migrants from other parts of Indonesia and the expansion of oil and gas industries.

Geography and Climate

Jayapura is located on the north coast of Papua, facing the Pacific Ocean. It is situated at the mouth of the Jayapura River and surrounded by hills and mountains. The city has a tropical rainforest climate with high humidity and year-round rainfall. The average temperature ranges from 25 to 28 degrees Celsius (77 to 82 degrees Fahrenheit) throughout the year. Jayapura is also known for its scenic beaches, lush tropical vegetation, and diverse marine life. The city is a popular destination for tourists, offering opportunities for swimming, snorkeling, diving, and other water-based activities.